• ## Maximum Level Sum of a Binary Tree

This is a problem from Leetcode - Maximum Level Sum of a Binary Tree.

Given the root of a binary tree, the level of its root is 1, the level of its children is 2, and so on.

Return the smallest level X such that the sum of all the values of nodes at level X is maximal.

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• ## As Far from Land as Possible

This is a problem from Leetcode - As Far from Land as Possible.

Given an N x N grid containing only values 0 and 1, where 0 represents water and 1 represents land, find a water cell such that its distance to the nearest land cell is maximized and return the distance.

The distance used in this problem is the Manhattan distance: the distance between two cells (x0, y0) and (x1, y1) is |x0 - x1| + |y0 - y1|.

If no land or water exists in the grid, return -1.

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• ## Insert into a Binary Search Tree

This is a problem from Leetcode - Insert into a Binary Search Tree.

Given the root node of a binary search tree (BST) and a value to be inserted into the tree, insert the value into the BST. Return the root node of the BST after the insertion. It is guaranteed that the new value does not exist in the original BST.

Note that there may exist multiple valid ways for the insertion, as long as the tree remains a BST after insertion. You can return any of them.

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• ## Swap For Longest Repeated Character Substring

This is a problem from Leetcode - Swap For Longest Repeated Character Substring.

Given a string text, we are allowed to swap two of the characters in the string. Find the length of the longest substring with repeated characters.

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• ## Snakes and Ladders

This is a problem from Leetcode - Snakes and Ladders.

On an N x N board, the numbers from 1 to N*N are written boustrophedonically starting from the bottom left of the board, and alternating direction each row. For example, for a 6 x 6 board, the numbers are written as follows:

You start on square 1 of the board (which is always in the last row and first column). Each move, starting from square x, consists of the following:

• You choose a destination square S with number x+1, x+2, x+3, x+4, x+5, or x+6, provided this number is <= N*N. (This choice simulates the result of a standard 6-sided die roll: ie., there are always at most 6 destinations, regardless of the size of the board.)
• If S has a snake or ladder, you move to the destination of that snake or ladder. Otherwise, you move to S.

A board square on row r and column c has a “snake or ladder” if board[r][c] != -1. The destination of that snake or ladder is board[r][c].

Note that you only take a snake or ladder at most once per move: if the destination to a snake or ladder is the start of another snake or ladder, you do not continue moving. (For example, if the board is [[4,-1],[-1,3]], and on the first move your destination square is 2, then you finish your first move at 3, because you do not continue moving to 4.)

Return the least number of moves required to reach square N*N. If it is not possible, return -1.

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• ## Snapshot Array

This is a problem from Leetcode - Snapshot Array.

Implement a SnapshotArray that supports the following interface:

• SnapshotArray(int length) initializes an array-like data structure with the given length. Initially, each element equals 0.
• void set(index, val) sets the element at the given index to be equal to val.
• int snap() takes a snapshot of the array and returns the snap_id: the total number of times we called snap() minus 1.
• int get(index, snap_id) returns the value at the given index, at the time we took the snapshot with the given snap_id
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• ## Binary Tree Coloring Game

This is a problem from Leetcode - Binary Tree Coloring Game.

Two players play a turn based game on a binary tree. We are given the root of this binary tree, and the number of nodes n in the tree. n is odd, and each node has a distinct value from 1 to n.

Initially, the first player names a value x with 1 <= x <= n, and the second player names a value y with 1 <= y <= n and y != x. The first player colors the node with value x red, and the second player colors the node with value y blue.

Then, the players take turns starting with the first player. In each turn, that player chooses a node of their color (red if player 1, blue if player 2) and colors an uncolored neighbor of the chosen node (either the left child, right child, or parent of the chosen node.)

If (and only if) a player cannot choose such a node in this way, they must pass their turn. If both players pass their turn, the game ends, and the winner is the player that colored more nodes.

You are the second player. If it is possible to choose such a y to ensure you win the game, return true. If it is not possible, return false.

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• ## Decrease Elements To Make Array Zigzag

This is a problem from Leetcode - Decrease Elements To Make Array Zigzag.

Given an array nums of integers, a move consists of choosing any element and decreasing it by 1.

An array A is a zigzag array if either:

• Every even-indexed element is greater than adjacent elements, ie. A[0] > A[1] < A[2] > A[3] < A[4] > …
• OR, every odd-indexed element is greater than adjacent elements, ie. A[0] < A[1] > A[2] < A[3] > A[4] < …

Return the minimum number of moves to transform the given array nums into a zigzag array.

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• ## Longest Common Subsequence

This is a problem from Leetcode - Longest Common Subsequence.

Given two strings text1 and text2, return the length of their longest common subsequence.

A subsequence of a string is a new string generated from the original string with some characters(can be none) deleted without changing the relative order of the remaining characters. (eg, “ace” is a subsequence of “abcde” while “aec” is not). A common subsequence of two strings is a subsequence that is common to both strings.

If there is no common subsequence, return 0.

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• ## Relative Sort Array

This is a problem from Leetcode - Relative Sort Array.

Given two arrays arr1 and arr2, the elements of arr2 are distinct, and all elements in arr2 are also in arr1.

Sort the elements of arr1 such that the relative ordering of items in arr1 are the same as in arr2. Elements that don’t appear in arr2 should be placed at the end of arr1 in ascending order.

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